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English

it always seems impossible until it is done

Hindi

यह हमेशा असंभव लगता है जब तक यह नहीं किया जाता है

Last Update: 2018-05-29
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

i will confirm once it is done

Hindi

एक बार यह हो जाने पर मैं पुष्टि करूंगा

Last Update: 2018-05-29
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

CVS command is running! Please wait until it is finished!

Hindi

सीवीएस कमांड है कार्यशील कृपया इंतजार करें जबतक है पूर्ण!

Last Update: 2014-08-20
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

Could not access drive %1. The drive is still busy. Wait until it is inactive and then try again.

Hindi

ड्राइव% 1 पर पहुँच नहीं सका. ड्राइव अभी भी व्यस्त है. इसका काम पूरा होते तक इंतजार करें तथा फिर से कोशिश करें.

Last Update: 2011-10-23
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

[There are yet] others whose cases are deferred until it is God's will to judge them. He will either punish them, or turn in mercy to them; God is all knowing and wise.

Hindi

और कुछ दूसरे लोग भी है जिनका मामला अल्लाह का हुक्म आने तक स्थगित है, चाहे वह उन्हें यातना दे या उनकी तौबा क़बूल करे। अल्लाह सर्वज्ञ, तत्वदर्शी है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

[There are yet] others whose cases are deferred until it is God's will to judge them. He will either punish them, or turn in mercy to them; God is all knowing and wise.

Hindi

और कुछ लोग हैं जो हुक्मे ख़ुदा के उम्मीदवार किए गए हैं (उसको अख्तेयार है) ख्वाह उन पर अज़ाब करे या उन पर मेहरबानी करे और ख़ुदा (तो) बड़ा वाकिफकार हिकमत वाला है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

Time is the most valuable thing on this earth; nothing can be compared with it. Once it goes, never be back. It always runs only in forward direction and not in backward direction. Everything in this world depends on time, nothing happens before time. Everything requires some time to get done. If we have not time, we have nothing. Loss of time is considered as the worst thing on this earth because wasting time, wastes us and our future. We never acquire lost time again. If we have lost our time, we have lost everything. Most of the people value their money more than the time however it is true that nothing is as valuable as time. It is time which gives us money; prosperity and happiness however nothing in this world can give time. Time can only be used; one can never buy or sell it. Most of the people live their life in useless way. They enjoy their time by only eating, playing or other lazy activities with their friends. In this way they spend days and years. They never think that what they are doing, in what ways they are living their time, etc. Even they never regret their ways of time wasting and never become sorry. Indirectly they have lost their lots of cash and most importantly the time which they never get back. We should learn from the mistakes of others as well as should inspire from the success of others. We should use our time in doing some useful works so that time may bless us, not destroy.

Hindi

nibandh मराठी veleche mhatva

Last Update: 2016-07-17
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

The lac used for making bangles is natural lac which is colored using colored lac by heating it. Melted colored lac is rubbed over normal lac until it absorbs the color. The lac is pressed and stuck on the brass metal bangles. Bangle Making: Normal lac is stuck/pasted thickly on a wooden rod and rolled over a flat surface to make it into a cylindrical shape. This lac is then heated slowly over the coal burner. The heated lac is continuously pressed and rolled over the flat iron plate with the help of wooden tool. The colored lac is heated simultaneously and then applied evenly by rubbing it on the lac. Once the color has been applied to the lac base it is again shaped into a thin coil and cut off from the plain lac rod. The width of the bangle varies as per the design incorporated on the bangle. Brass or steel is used as base for the lac. The metals are first converted in the shape of the bangles and the thin lac coil is rolled on the brass or steel base. For a thin lac bangle 3 thin brass bangles are kept together and on that lac coil is rolled, incase of steel base, the base thickness is made according to the required width of the bangle. The thickness and the length of the coil approximately depend on the final shape and size of the bangles. The semi-finished bangle is slipped into a round wooden beam with a tapering end for adjusting to the proper shape. The bangles are kept aside for drying. Embellishments: The bangles are normally embellished with pearls, semi-precious stones, mirrors, beads etc. For applying the stones, they are heated over a tin plate kept on a small burner. The base of the stones gets heated and easily melts the lac surface on which they are placed and stick there after cooling. They are picked up one at a time and stuck on the bangle. The process requires great precision. The women members of the artisan’s family do the embellishments.

Hindi

lakh used in bangles

Last Update: 2015-07-02
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

natural resources in indiaNatural resources of India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Natural resources are utilisable materials derived from the environment. Resources are classified as either biotic or abiotic on the basis of their origin. The Indian landmass contains a multitude of both types of resource and its economy, especially in rural areas, is heavily dependent on their consumption or export. Due to overconsumption, such as uncontrolled logging or overfishing, many valuable natural resources are rapidly being depleted. Contents • 1 General • 2 Biotic resources o 2.1 Forestry o 2.2 Fish o 2.3 Coal o 2.4 Oil o 2.5 Natural gas • 3 Abiotic resources o 3.1 Metallic minerals  3.1.1 Copper  3.1.2 Zinc  3.1.3 Iron ore  3.1.4 Chromite o 3.2 Non-metallic minerals  3.2.1 Garnet group  3.2.2 Wollastonite  3.2.3 Sillimanite group  3.2.4 Ilmenite  3.2.5 Pyrophyllite o 3.3 Minor minerals  3.3.1 Marble o 3.4 Nuclear  3.4.1 Uranium  3.4.2 Thorium • 4 See also • 5 References General The total cultivable area in India is 12,945,355 km² (56.78% of its total land area), which is shrinking due to population pressures and rapid urbanisation. India has a total water surface area of 360,400 km²[1] and receives an average annual rainfall of 1,100 mm. Irrigation accounts for 92% of the water utilisation, comprising an area of 380 km² in 1974. It is expected to rise to 1,050 km² by 2025, with the balance accounted for by industrial and domestic consumers. India's inland water resources include rivers, canals, ponds and lakes, coupled with the east and west coasts of the Indian ocean and other gulfs and bays. These provide employment to nearly 6 million people in the fisheries sector. In 2008, India had the world's third largest fishing industry.[2] India produces 4 fuels, 11 metallic, 52 non-metallic and 22 minor minerals.[3] India's major mineral resources include Coal (4th largest reserves in the world), Iron ore, Manganese ore (7th largest reserve in the world as in 2013),[4] Mica, Bauxite (5th largest reserve in the world as in 2013),[5] Chromite, Natural gas, Diamonds, Limestone and Thorium (world's largest along Tamil Nadus[6] shores). India's oil reserves, found in Bombay High off the coast of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and in eastern Assam meet 25% of the country's demand.[7][8] A national level agency National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS) was established in 1983 for integrated natural resources management in the country. It is supported by Planning Commission (India) and Department of Space.[9] Biotic resources Biotic resources are obtained from the living and organic material. These include forest products, wildlife, crops and other living organisms. Most of these resources are renewable because they can regenerate themselves. Fossil fuels are considered as biotic because they are formed from decayed organic matter. Fossil fuels are non-renewable.[10] Forestry Forest in Western ghats section, Karnataka India's land area includes regions with high rainfall to dry deserts, Coast line to Alpine regions. Around 21 percent of the total geographical area consists of Forests. Due to variations in climatic conditions and differences in altitude, different types of Forest are present in India including Tropical, Swamps, Mangrove and Alpine. Variety of forest vegetation is large. Forests are the main source of Fire woods, Paper, Spices, Drugs, Herbs, Gums and more. Forests contribute significant amount to nation's GDP.[11] Main article: Forestry in India Fish India has a long history in fishing and aquaculture. India has rich marine and inland water resources. It has an 8129 km long coastline. Inland fishery is carried out in Rivers, Reservoirs and Lakes. In Indian rivers more than 400 species of fish are found and many species are economically important. Shrimps, Sardines, Mackerels, Carangids, Croakers and other varieties are available. Major Fish species available are Carp, Catfish, Murrel and Weed fish.[12] India is one of the major marine fish producer. In 2012-2013, 9 Lakh tonnes of Marine products was exported.[13] Main article: Fishing in India Coal Main article: Coal mining in India Coal mine in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state Coal mining in India started in 1774 through East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield along the Western bank of Damodar River in the Indian State of West Bengal . Growth of the Indian coal mining started when steam locomotives were introduced in 1853. Production increased to Million tonnes. Production reached 30 million tonnes in 1946. After Independence, National Coal Development Corporation was set up and colleries were owned by Railways. India consumes coal mainly for Power sector. Other industries like cement, fertilizer, chemical and paper rely coal for energy requirements.[14] Oil India had about 125 Million metric tonne of proven oil reserves as April 2010 or 5.62 billion barrels as per EIA estimate for 2009,[15] which is the second-largest amount in the Asia-Pacific region behind China.[16] Most of India's crude oil reserves are located in the western coast (Mumbai High) and in the northeastern parts of the country, although considerable undeveloped reserves are also located in the offshore Bay of Bengal and in the state of Rajasthan. The combination of rising oil consumption and fairly unwavering production levels leaves India highly dependent on imports to meet the consumption needs. In 2010, India produced an average of about 33.69 million metric tonne of crude oil as on April 2010[17] or 877 thousand barrels per day as per EIA estimate of 2009.[15] During 2006, India consumed an estimated 2.63 Mbbl/d (418,000 m3/d) of oil.[18] The EIA estimates that India registered oil demand growth of 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d) during 2006. As of 2013 India Produces 30% of India's resources mostly in Rajasthan.[18] India’s oil sector is dominated by state-owned enterprises, although the government has taken steps in past recent years to deregulate the hydrocarbons industry and support greater foreign involvement. India’s state-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation is the largest oil company. ONGC is the leading player in India’s upstream sector, accounting for roughly 75% of the country’s oil output during 2006, as per Indian government estimates.[16] As a net importer of all oil, the Indian Government has introduced policies aimed at growing domestic oil production and oil exploration activities. As part of the effort, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas crafted the New Exploration License Policy (NELP) in 2000, which permits foreign companies to hold 100% equity possession in oil and natural gas projects.[16] However, to date, only a handful of oil fields are controlled by foreign firms. India’s downstream sector is also dominated by state-owned entities, though private companies have enlarged their market share in past recent years. Natural gas Oil and Gas processing platform at Bombay High As per the Ministry of petroleum, Government of India, India has 1,437 billion cubic metres (50.7×1012 cu ft) of confirmed natural gas reserves as of April 2010. A huge mass of India’s natural gas production comes from the western offshore regions, particularly the Mumbai High complex. The onshore fields in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat states are also major producers of natural gas. As per EIA data, India produced 996 billion cubic feet (2.82×1010 m3) of natural gas in 2004.[19] India imports small amounts of natural gas. In 2004, India consumed about 1,089×109 cu ft (3.08×1010 m3) of natural gas, the first year in which the country showed net natural gas imports. During 2004, India imported 93×109 cu ft (2.6×109 m3) of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Qatar.[19] As in the oil sector, India’s state-owned companies account for the bulk of natural gas production. ONGC and Oil India Ltd. (OIL) are the leading companies with respect to production volume, while some foreign companies take part in upstream developments in joint-ventures and production sharing contracts. [Reliance Industries], a privately owned Indian company, will also have a bigger role in the natural gas sector as a result of a large natural gas find in 2002 in the Krishna Godavari basin.[19] The Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL) holds an effective control on natural gas transmission and allocation activities. In December 2006, the Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas issued a new policy that allows foreign investors, private domestic companies, and Government oil companies to hold up to 100% equity stakes in pipeline projects. While GAIL’s domination in natural gas transmission and allocation is not ensured by statute, it will continue to be the leading player in the sector because of its existing natural gas infrastructure.[19] Abiotic resources Abiotic resources are obtained from the non-living and non-organic material. Some of the resources like Water and Air are Renewable. Other resources like Minerals are Non-renewable and exhaustible because they cannot be regenerated.[10] Minerals can be categorized as Metallic, Non-Metallic and Minor minerals. Metallic minerals Metallic minerals are the minerals which contain one or more metallic elements. They occur in rare, naturally formed concentrations known as mineral deposits. Metallic minerals available from India are Zinc, Iron ore, Manganese ore, Gold, Bauxite, Silver, Lead, Tin, Copper and Chromite.[20] Copper 1st Century B.C. Copper coin signifies usage of Copper in India since ancient times Copper has been used since ancient times. Details of Copper mining and metallurgy are available in ancient works like Arthashastra. Copper is mainly used in Industrial applications, Electrical/Electronic equipments and Consumer products such as utensils. Major resources of Copper are available at Rajasthan, Madhya pradesh and Jharkhand. As on 2010, India had 1.56 billion tonnes of Copper ore.[21] India is one of the 20 major Copper producers. In 2008, India produced 7,10,000 tonnes of copper.[22] Hindustan Copper Limited, a public sector company is the only producer of primary refined copper. Post-pillar method and Blast hole stoping method are used for Mining. Some of the domestic demand is met through scrap recycling. In India, Copper scrap is recycled through Direct melting, which is a hazardous process.[21] Zinc Zinc is a bluish-white, lustrous, diamagnetic metal. It is also a fair conductor of electricity. References to medicinal uses of zinc are present in the Charaka Samhita. Ancient Zinc smelting technique was found at a zinc production site in Zawar, Rajasthan. Zinc is recovered from a number of different zinc ores. The types of zinc ores include sulfide, carbonate, silicate and oxide.[23] It is used in corrosive resistant coating for Iron and Steel. Also used in Automotive, Electrical and Machinery industries. India is the World's fourth largest Zinc reserve as in 2013.[24] Hindustan Zinc Limited is the main producer of Zinc in India. Most of the resources are available in Rajasthan. Minor amount of resources are available in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Maharashtra states.[23] Iron ore India is the World's third biggest exporter of Iron ore as in 2013.[5] As on 2010, India had 27 billion tonnes or resource (including Hematite and Magnetite). Major amount of Hematite is found in Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Goa. Minor amount of Hematite is found in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Major amount of Magnetite is found in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. Minor amount of Magnetite is found in Assam, Bihar, Goa, Jharkhand, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya and Nagaland. Mining is done by opencast method. Iron ore is mainly used for manufacturing of Pig iron, Sponge iron and Steel. It is also used in coal washeries, cement and glass industries.[25] The public sector companies like National Mineral Development Corporation and Steel Authority of India contribute to 25% of the total production. Private companies including Tata Steel provides major contribution.[26] Chromite It is an oxide of Chromium and Iron. It is the only commercial source of Chromium. As on 2010, India had 200 million tonnes of resource. Major amount of resources are available from Orissa (Cuttack and Jajpur districts). Minor amount of resources are available from Manipur, Nagaland, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.[27] In 2009-2010, India produced 3.41 million tonnes and ranked second in world production.[28] It is mostly mined by opencast method. Chromium provides additional strength to the alloys and it is resistant to corrosion. So it is mainly used in Metallurgical applications. It can withstand sudden temperature changes makes it use in Refractories. It is also used in Chemical applications.[27] Non-metallic minerals Non-metallic minerals are those which do not yield new products on melting. They are generally associated with sedimentary rocks. Non-Metallic minerals available from India are Phosphorite, Dolomite, Gypsum, Garnet, Wollastonite, Vermiculite, Ochre, Perlite, Bentonite, Asbestos, Cadmium, Felspar, Soapstone, Kaolin, Sillimanite, Limestone, Diatomite, Pyrophyllite, Fluorite, Vanadium, Dunite, Ilmenite, Gallium and Zircon[29] Almandine (Garnet group) from Rajasthan Garnet group It is a group of complex silicate minerals and has similar chemical compositions. There are three groups of garnet - Aluminum-garnet group, Chromium-garnet group, and Iron-garnet group. The minerals in Aluminium-garnet group are Almandine, Grossularite, Pyrope, and Spessartine. The mineral in Iron-garnet group is Andradite. The mineral in Chromium-garnet group is Uvarovite. Garnet group minerals occur in different rock types.[30] It is a hard substance. It is resistant to chemical exposure. Used as an Semi-precious stone and also in Abrasives, Sand blasting, Water filtration materials and Water jet cutting. Garnets are available in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. It is also found in beach sands of Kerala, Orissa and Tamil Nadu states.[31] In 2007-08, India produced 8,73,000 tonnes.[32] Wollastonite It is a meta-silicate of Calcium. It is mostly white in color and occurs as bladed or needle like crystals. As on 2010, India had 16 million tonnes of resource. Most of the deposits are available in Rajasthan (Dungarpur, Pali, Sirohi and Udaipur districts). Minor amount of deposits are found in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.[33] It is mainly used in Ceramic industries and Metallurgical applications. It is also used as a filler in Wall tiles, Paint, Rubber and Plastic. India is one of the largest reserves. In 2010, India produced 1,45,000 tons.[34] It is mined by opencast method. It is also used as a substitute for short-fibre asbestos in brake-linings. Central Building Research Institute has found that Wollastonite can be used as substitute for chrysotile asbestos in cement products.[33] Sillimanite group Sillimanite from Orissa It is a group of metamorphic minerals - Sillimanite, Kyanite and Andalusite. These are polymorphs of Alumino-Silicate. These are formed under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. The three minerals are calcined to form Mullite. Mainly used as refractory materials.[35] As on 2010, India had 66 million tonnes of Sillimanite, 100 million tonnes of Kyanite and 18 million tonnes of Andalusite as resource. Most of the resources are found in Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Assam. Minor amount of resources are found in Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Granular Sillimanite is available in beach sands of South India. Sillimanite refractory bricks are used in Steel, Glass and Petrochemical industries.[36] In 2004, India produced 14,500 tonnes of Sillimanite and 6200 tonnes of Kyanite.[35] Ilmenite It is a compound of Iron and Titanium. It will be iron-black or Steel-gray in color. It is non-toxic material and used in biomedical substances. Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology has developed an Environment friendly technology for processing Ilmenite.[37] It is also used in production of Titanium dioxide pigment. It is available in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Orissa. Mining is done at locations Chavara, Chatrapur, Aluva and Manavalakurichi by Indian Rare Earths limited.[38] As on 2013, India has 21% of the world's reserves and constitutes 6% of the world's production.[39] Pyrophyllite It is a hydrous Alumino-silicate. It is chemically inert, has high melting point and low electrical conductivity. It is used in Refractories, Foundry dressings, Pesticides, Ceramics and Rubber. It is available as Hydrothermal deposits.[40] Physical and Optical properties of Pyrophyllite is similar to Talc. It is also used in Electrical insulators, Sanitary-ware and in Glass industry. As on 2010, India had 56 million tonnes of resource. Most of the resources are found in Madhya pradesh (Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh and Shivpuri districts). Remaining resources are found in Orissa, Uttar pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. In 2010, India produced 1.5 million tonnes.[41] Minor minerals Quartzite rocks in North Coastal Andhra Pradesh White marble rocks in Madhya Pradesh Minor minerals available are Building stone, Brick earth, Quartzite, Marble, Granite, Gravel, Clay and Sand. These are mainly used in Building constructions.[20] Impact of mining these minerals was significant over a period of time even the area was small. Impacts were Increasing water scarcity, Damage to River beds and adverse effects on bio-diversity. So from 2012 onwards, mining of these minerals are to be done after clearance from Ministry of Environment and Forests (India). [42] Marble Marble is a metamorphosed limestone formed by re-crystallization. It is available in different colours and textures. Marble deposits are available in many states of India.[43] It has been used in India for a long time. It was used in construction of Temples, Tombs and Palaces. Now it is also used for flooring in homes and offices. It is preferred for flooring because of its durability and water resistance.[44] Marbles which are economically important are available in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. As on 2010, there was 1931 million tonnes of resource, including all grades of marble. Based on the chemical composition, types of Marble available are Calcite, Dolomitic, Siliceous Limestone, Serpentine and Travertine marbles. Other than construction, it is used in Paint and Agricultural lime.[43] Nuclear India's proven Nuclear reserves include Uranium, Thorium and Plutonium. Uranium In Nalgonda District, the Rajiv Gandhi Tiger Reserve (the only tiger project in Andhra Pradesh) has been forced to surrender over 3,000 sq. kilometres to uranium mining, following a directive from the Central Ministry of Environment and Forests.[45] In 2007, India was able to extract 229 tonnes of U3O8 from its soil.[46] On 19 July 2011, Indian officials announced that the Tumalapalli mine in Andhra Pradesh state of India could provide more than 170,000 tonnes of uranium, making it as the world's largest uranium mine. Production of the ore is slated to begin in 2012.[47] The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) recently discovered that the upcoming mine in Tumalapalli has close to 49,000 tonne of uranium reserves. This could just be a shot in the arm for India's nuclear power aspirations as it is three times the original estimate of the area's deposits.[48] Thorium The IAEA's 2005 report estimates India's reasonably assured reserves of thorium at 319,000 tonnes, but mentions recent reports of India's reserves at 650,000 tonnes.[49] A government of India estimate, shared in the co

Hindi

भारत में प्राकृतिक संसाधनों

Last Update: 2015-06-13
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

visthapan ke symasya Infrastructural development projects frequently result in the displacement of peoples from home giving way to dams, highways, or other large-scale construction projects. This Article focuses on applying an ethical analysis of the tension between the right to development, on the one hand, and the resulting risks to human security and their human rights, on the other hand. The authors argue that displacement is a multidimensional phenomenon, not confined to physical relocation. It reduces the "quality of life" of human beings into sub-human conditions. Studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that displacement mostly affects indigenous people and ethnic minorities. Unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment and loss of ecological balance. It is suggested that this unsystematic displacement of humans amounts to a gross violation of Article 21 of the Constitution of India. The judiciary has further played an important role in protection of environment by incorporating "right to clean and healthy environment" under Article 21. The founding fathers of the Constitution, under Article 39, imposed a mandate on the state towards distribution of resources so as to subserve common good. However, the law which has been consistently invoked for land acquisition is a pre-constitutional law dated 1894 with 'compensation' as the only remedy for the persons affected by such acquisitions and having no provisions for rehabilitation and resettlement. Also, the Article lays emphasis on various international policy guidelines and mechanisms, designed to safeguard those who are internally displaced as a result of development projects. In the light of the above mentioned problems, the authors suggests that a comprehensive National Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement (NPRR) of displaced population be framed replacing the anomalies of NPRR, 2007. Introduction "Being forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat by a dam, reservoir or highway is not only immediately disruptive and painful, it is also fraught with serious long term risks of becoming poorer than before displacement, more vulnerable economically, and disintegrated socially"1. Development-induced displacement can be defined as the forcing of communities and individuals out of their homes, often also their homelands, for the purposes of economic development.Natural resource extraction, urban renewal or development programmes and infrastructure projects such as highways, bridges, irrigation canals, and dams all require land, often in large quantity. One common consequence of such projects is the upheaval and displacement of communities. It is estimated that 10 million people were displaced annually by these so called "developmental activities." However, national leaders and policy-makers typically viewed these as legitimate and inevitable costs of development, acceptable in the larger national interest. Pt. J.L. Nehru said 'If you have to suffer, you should do so in the interest of the country'2. Indigenous People and Tribal Disproportionately Affected Studies on the social impact of development projects suggest that indigenous people including tribals and women are disproportionately affected. The Scheduled Tribes constitute about 8.1 percent of the total population of the country according to 1991 census but they also constituted 55.16% of total displaced people which indicates victimization of the tribals. Development for the nation has meant displacement, pauperisation, or, at its very best, peonage for the tribals.3 Impact of Displacement Forcibly ousted from one's land and habitat carries with it many risk .Some of the identified interlinked potential risks intrinsic to displacement4 are: 1. Landlessness 2. Joblessness 3. Homelessness 4. Marginalization. 5. Food Insecurity. 6. Increased Morbidity and Mortality 7. Loss of Access to Common Property. 8. Social Disintegration.5 Development- Displacement and Environment In achieving the so called "greater common good" or "the national interest" the long run adverse impacts on the natural resources are ignored. Various developmental projects stands accused of the destruction of entire environments, including flora, fauna, landscapes, river systems, water quality, and shorelines as well as the creation of mercury contamination, greenhouse gases, water quality deterioration, downriver hydrological change, reservoir sedimentation, transmission line impacts, quarries and borrow pits. The large scale deforestation due to mining and establishment of industries has resulted in climate change and inconsistent weathers. Big Dams submerge huge area of forest cover causing irreversible loss to varieties of flora and fauna besides the land area. The pollution (air, water, soil and noise) caused by the industries accentuate the miseries of the present as well as the generations to come. No wonder that the environmental impact assessment of most of the big and mega projects reveal that such hyped and appreciated mega ventures are nothing but surviving at human and environmental costs6. It is high time we realize the need of transforming our developmental policies to answer the larger human and environmental requirements until it becomes too late. Human Rights Challenges That Arise in Relation to Development-Induced Displacement There is no doubt about the developmental benefits of any planned project, but these cannot be weighed against human rights. Human rights thus have to be considered independently. In 1986, the UN General Assembly adopted a Declaration on the Right to Development7. The heart of the problem is that people displaced by development projects are generally seen as a necessary sacrifice on the road to development. The Human rights that are affected : Right To Life The right to life and livelihood is threatened by the loss of home and the means to make a living when people are displaced from habitual residences and traditional homelands. The right to life is protected in the UDHR (Article 3) and the ICCPR (Article 6)8. In Indian context, The Supreme Court in Ollega Tellis case envisaged right to livelihood under the aegis of Article 21 and condemned the unjustifiable displacement of people from their land. Right to life doesn't mean merely animal existence but living with human dignity and all that goes along with it like right to shelter9. Moreover, Unsystematic and piecemeal approach to development has resulted in depletion of the environment which "makes life worth living, materially and culturally10."And so it has lead to violation of right to clean and healthy environment. Right to own Property The rights to adequate housing and security of the person and property serve to protect individuals and communities from being arbitrarily displaced from their homes and land. The right to own property and not to be arbitrarily deprived of this property is spelled out in the UDHR Articles 17 as well as in Article 6 of the ICESCR. Rights To Residence The eviction or displacement of persons unlawfully amounts to violation of the rights to freedom of residence11. Article 19(e) of the Indian constitution asserts right to residence as fundamental right. All these rights and many others are of direct relevance in the case of large-scale displacement of people. Indeed, in a number of cases, not only socio-economic rights such as the right to housing that are at stake but a number of civil and political rights, from the right to be informed about the displacement procedures to the freedom of expression, may be violated if the government tries to coerce people to move out from their homes12. Defects in Compensation, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy For the Government and its agents of development, cash compensation seems to be the only panacea for the problems induced by displacement and only policy for rehabilitation. It's hard to believe that how land, natural resources, means of livelihood, social and cultural loss resulting from displacement can be quantified and compensated in monetary terms? Moreover, the manner in which the law is framed and interpreted ensures that the displaced land-owner or house-owner is always the loser. The limited provisions in the Land Acquisition Act to challenge the rate of compensation are, in practice, inaccessible to the indigent and illiterate oustees. Even, only those landowners who were familiar with the legal details of the Land Acquisition took their cases to court. The value of the land is calculated as on the date of the gazette notification and interest is liable to be paid only from the date of taking possession up to the date of payment of full compensation. The LAA thus does not take into consideration the escalation of the market value between the time of notification and the date of actual possession. The ill-effects of the displacement induced by development ought to be taken care off by the state and necessary arrangement thereof made, i.e. the displaced persons be resettled in a safe habitat wherein they can start their life afresh. However, this would require more than mere allocation of certain piece of land for resettlement or mere construction of make shift camps for temporary settlement. What is needed is the "rehabilitation" of the persons affected by the projects; rehabilitation means to "restore to the former condition", and thus, all that was lost by displacement, the emotional, cultural, social, political and economic losses must be restored at a priority basis than to the Project itself, which is the cause of the impoverishment. The Ethics of Development Induced Displacement and Rehabilitation (Didr) In dealing with issues of development and displacement, important ethical questions are raised such as why is displacement often considered morally objectionable? Under what conditions, if ever, can a development project justify displacement? Is it ethically just to displace people so long as they are compensated? If so, what type of compensation is owed to displacees? According to Peter Penz,13 Three broad ethical perspectives that can be used to justify development-induced displacement are public interest, self-determination, and egalitarianism. The public interest perspective, embodied in cost-benefit analysis, supports the decision that brings the greatest net benefits to the population as a whole. The self-determination perspective privileges freedom and personal control. In its form, forced displacement (at least of those who legally own property) is unjust because it violates property rights. The egalitarian perspective privileges actions that reduce poverty and/or inequality14. Theoretically, can be justified here if it benefits the poor at the cost of the wealthy, but questions are raised when a project benefits an under-privileged group at the cost of another such group. As Penz points out, is an ethically complex issue, in which public interest and distributive concerns stand in tension with self-determination and individual rights. He concludes that there are conditions under which can be justified, but that these conditions must be strong15. They include the avoidance of coercive displacement in favour of negotiated settlement, the minimization of resettlement numbers, the full compensation of displacees for all losses, and the use of development benefits to reduce poverty and inequality. Unfortunately, in most cases of DIDR, these conditions have been violated. International and National Organisation and Policies Over the past decade, different international legal entities and institutions have responded to the human rights impacts and risks of development-induced displacement by formulating a variety of guidelines, laws and best practices. Some of the most important international guidelines and practice on this issue are: • The UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. • The OECD's Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Involuntary Displacement and Resettlement in Development Projects, 1992. • World Bank's Operational Directive 4.30 on Involuntary Resettlement. • United Nations and Other International Organizations- Different agencies of UN work as cluster and have sectoral responsibility to deal with the issue of development-induced displacement rehabilitation and resettlement. a. The Representative of the Secretary-General on IDPs The report formed by this agency is the basis for the provisions in the Guiding Principles on protection against displacement. b. Internal Displacement Unit Using the Guiding Principles as an overall framework, the Unit identify and draw attention to gaps in the response to internal displacement c. World Food Program The essential condition for the provision of WFP food is the food insecurity of displaced people. d. UN Development Programme UNDP in particular has become increasingly involved in programs involving the resettlement and reintegration of internally displaced populations. e. UN-Habitat The twin goals of the Habitat Agenda are "adequate shelter for all" and "sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world. Recommendations Ill-consequences of the displacement lead to the requirement of policies and legislations that address the issues of not only development induced displacement, but also about rehabilitation and resettlement. Following are some suggestion and recommendations to deal with problem of displacement caused by development : 1. States should ensure that eviction impact assessments are carried out prior to the initiation of any project which could result in development-based displacement, with a view to fully securing the human rights of all potentially affected persons, groups and communities. 2. States should fully explore all possible alternatives to any act involving forced eviction. 3. Sufficient information shall be provided to affected persons, groups and communities concerning all State projects as well as to the planning and implementation processes relating to the resettlement concerned, including information concerning the purpose to which the eviction dwelling or site is to be put and the persons, groups or communities who will benefit from the evicted site. 4. The State must provide or ensure fair and just compensation for any losses of personal, real or other property or goods, including rights or interests in property. 5. Resettlement must occur in a just and equitable manner and in full accordance with international human rights law. 6. States should ensure that adequate and effective legal or other appropriate remedies are available to any persons claiming that his/her right of protection against forced evictions has been violated or is under threat of violation16. 7. To make new Law on rehabilitation and change the LAA (1894), since it goes against the rights of the poor. Rehabilitation should not be separated from land acquisition and that the LAA (1894) should be changed in such a manner as to minimize displacement and turn rehabilitation into an integral part of such acquisition. 8. The very basis of the Land acquisition policies in its legal premises is required to be compatible with constitutional frame of Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Special Provisions for the Scheduled Castes / Tribes and weaker sections. The effects of displacement spill over to generations in many ways, such as loss of traditional means of employment, change of environment, disrupted community life and relationships, marginalization, a profound psychological trauma and more. The issue of Displacement is an example of how law has to be consistent with socioeconomic and political circumstances, and it appears to have failed in doing so. To conclude, there is a strong need to put legal thought into issues concerning the land acquirers as well as to thoroughly investigate issues regarding removing the imbalance from the system.

Hindi

visthapan Ke symasya

Last Update: 2015-01-27
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous
Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting

English

Anon We shall shew them Our signs in the regions and in their ownselves until it becometh manifest Unto them that it is the truth. Sufficeth it not in regard to thy Lord, that He is over everything Witness?

Hindi

शीघ्र ही हम उन्हें अपनी निशानियाँ वाह्य क्षेत्रों में दिखाएँगे और स्वयं उनके अपने भीतर भी, यहाँ तक कि उनपर स्पष्टा हो जाएगा कि वह (क़ुरआन) सत्य है। क्या तुम्हारा रब इस दृष्टि, से काफ़ी नहीं कि वह हर चीज़ का साक्षी है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

Anon We shall shew them Our signs in the regions and in their ownselves until it becometh manifest Unto them that it is the truth. Sufficeth it not in regard to thy Lord, that He is over everything Witness?

Hindi

हम अनक़रीब ही अपनी (क़ुदरत) की निशानियाँ अतराफ (आलम) में और ख़़ुद उनमें भी दिखा देगें यहाँ तक कि उन पर ज़ाहिर हो जाएगा कि वही यक़ीनन हक़ है क्या तुम्हारा परवरदिगार इसके लिए काफी नहीं कि वह हर चीज़ पर क़ाबू रखता है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

O you who have faith! When you contract a loan for a specified term, write it down. Let a writer write with honesty between you, and let not the writer refuse to write as Allah has taught him. So let him write, and let the one who incurs the debt dictate, and let him be wary of Allah, his Lord, and not diminish anything from it. But if the debtor be feeble-minded, or weak, or incapable of dictating himself, then let his guardian dictate with honesty, and take as witness two witnesses from your men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women—from those whom you approve as witnesses—so that if one of the two defaults the other will remind her. The witnesses must not refuse when they are called, and do not consider it wearisome to write it down, whether it be a big or small sum, [as a loan lent] until its term. That is more just with Allah and more upright in respect to testimony, and the likeliest way to avoid doubt, unless it is an on-the-spot deal you transact between yourselves, in which case there is no sin upon you not to write it. Take witnesses when you make a deal, and let no harm be done to the writer or witness, and if you did that, it would be sinful of you. Be wary of Allah and Allah will teach you, and Allah has knowledge of all things.

Hindi

ऐ ईमान लानेवालो! जब किसी निश्चित अवधि के लिए आपस में ऋण का लेन-देन करो तो उसे लिख लिया करो और चाहिए कि कोई लिखनेवाला तुम्हारे बीच न्यायपूर्वक (दस्तावेज़) लिख दे। और लिखनेवाला लिखने से इनकार न करे; जिस प्रकार अल्लाह ने उसे सिखाया है, उसी प्रकार वह दूसरों के लिए लिखने के काम आए और बोलकर वह लिखाए जिसके ज़िम्मे हक़ की अदायगी हो। और उसे अल्लाह का, जो उसका रब है, डर रखना चाहिए और उसमें कोई कमी न करनी चाहिए। फिर यदि वह व्यक्ति जिसके ज़िम्मे हक़ की अदायगी हो, कम समझ या कमज़ोर हो या वह बोलकर न लिखा सकता हो तो उसके संरक्षक को चाहिए कि न्यायपूर्वक बोलकर लिखा दे। और अपने पुरुषों में से दो गवाहो को गवाह बना लो और यदि दो पुरुष न हों तो एक पुरुष और दो स्त्रियाँ, जिन्हें तुम गवाह के लिए पसन्द करो, गवाह हो जाएँ (दो स्त्रियाँ इसलिए रखी गई है) ताकि यदि एक भूल जाए तो दूसरी उसे याद दिला दे। और गवाहों को जब बुलाया जाए तो आने से इनकार न करें। मामला चाहे छोटा हो या बड़ा एक निर्धारित अवधि तक के लिए है, तो उसे लिखने में सुस्ती से काम न लो। यह अल्लाह की स्पष्ट से अधिक न्यायसंगत बात है और इससे गवाही भी अधिक ठीक रहती है। और इससे अधिक संभावना है कि तुम किसी संदेह में नहीं पड़ोगे। हाँ, यदि कोई सौदा नक़द हो, जिसका लेन-देन तुम आपस में कर रहे हो, तो तुम्हारे उसके न लिखने में तुम्हारे लिए कोई दोष नहीं। और जब आपम में क्रय-विक्रय का मामला करो तो उस समय भी गवाह कर लिया करो, और न किसी लिखनेवाले को हानि पहुँचाए जाए और न किसी गवाह को। और यदि ऐसा करोगे तो यह तुम्हारे लिए अवज्ञा की बात होगी। और अल्लाह का डर रखो। अल्लाह तुम्हें शिक्षा दे रहा है। और अल्लाह हर चीज़ को जानता है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

O you who have faith! When you contract a loan for a specified term, write it down. Let a writer write with honesty between you, and let not the writer refuse to write as Allah has taught him. So let him write, and let the one who incurs the debt dictate, and let him be wary of Allah, his Lord, and not diminish anything from it. But if the debtor be feeble-minded, or weak, or incapable of dictating himself, then let his guardian dictate with honesty, and take as witness two witnesses from your men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women—from those whom you approve as witnesses—so that if one of the two defaults the other will remind her. The witnesses must not refuse when they are called, and do not consider it wearisome to write it down, whether it be a big or small sum, [as a loan lent] until its term. That is more just with Allah and more upright in respect to testimony, and the likeliest way to avoid doubt, unless it is an on-the-spot deal you transact between yourselves, in which case there is no sin upon you not to write it. Take witnesses when you make a deal, and let no harm be done to the writer or witness, and if you did that, it would be sinful of you. Be wary of Allah and Allah will teach you, and Allah has knowledge of all things.

Hindi

ऐ ईमानदारों जब एक मियादे मुक़र्ररा तक के लिए आपस में क़र्ज क़ा लेन देन करो तो उसे लिखा पढ़ी कर लिया करो और लिखने वाले को चाहिये कि तुम्हारे दरमियान तुम्हारे क़ौल व क़रार को, इन्साफ़ से ठीक ठीक लिखे और लिखने वाले को लिखने से इन्कार न करना चाहिये (बल्कि) जिस तरह ख़ुदा ने उसे (लिखना पढ़ना) सिखाया है उसी तरह उसको भी वे उज़्र (बहाना) लिख देना चाहिये और जिसके ज़िम्मे क़र्ज़ आयद होता है उसी को चाहिए कि (तमस्सुक) की इबारत बताता जाये और ख़ुदा से डरे जो उसका सच्चा पालने वाला है डरता रहे और (बताने में) और क़र्ज़ देने वाले के हुक़ूक़ में कुछ कमी न करे अगर क़र्ज़ लेने वाला कम अक्ल या माज़ूर या ख़ुद (तमस्सुक) का मतलब लिखवा न सकता हो तो उसका सरपरस्त ठीक ठीक इन्साफ़ से लिखवा दे और अपने लोगों में से जिन लोगों को तुम गवाही लेने के लिये पसन्द करो (कम से कम) दो मर्दों की गवाही कर लिया करो फिर अगर दो मर्द न हो तो (कम से कम) एक मर्द और दो औरतें (क्योंकि) उन दोनों में से अगर एक भूल जाएगी तो एक दूसरी को याद दिला देगी, और जब गवाह हुक्काम के सामने (गवाही के लिए) बुलाया जाएं तो हाज़िर होने से इन्कार न करे और क़र्ज़ का मामला ख्वाह छोटा हो या उसकी मियाद मुअय्युन तक की (दस्तावेज़) लिखवाने में काहिली न करो, ख़ुदा के नज़दीक ये लिखा पढ़ी बहुत ही मुन्सिफ़ाना कारवाई है और गवाही के लिए भी बहुत मज़बूती है और बहुत क़रीन (क़यास) है कि तुम आईन्दा किसी तरह के शक व शुबहा में न पड़ो मगर जब नक़द सौदा हो जो तुम लोग आपस में उलट फेर किया करते हो तो उसकी (दस्तावेज) के न लिखने में तुम पर कुछ इल्ज़ाम नहीं है (हॉ) और जब उसी तरह की ख़रीद (फ़रोख्त) हो तो गवाह कर लिया करो और क़ातिब (दस्तावेज़) और गवाह को ज़रर न पहुँचाया जाए और अगर तुम ऐसा कर बैठे तो ये ज़रूर तुम्हारी शरारत है और ख़ुदा से डरो ख़ुदा तुमको मामले की सफ़ाई सिखाता है और वह हर चीज़ को ख़ूब जानता है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

Soon shall We show them Our Signs on the horizons and in their own beings until it becomes clear to them that it is the Truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is a witness over everything?

Hindi

शीघ्र ही हम उन्हें अपनी निशानियाँ वाह्य क्षेत्रों में दिखाएँगे और स्वयं उनके अपने भीतर भी, यहाँ तक कि उनपर स्पष्टा हो जाएगा कि वह (क़ुरआन) सत्य है। क्या तुम्हारा रब इस दृष्टि, से काफ़ी नहीं कि वह हर चीज़ का साक्षी है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

Soon shall We show them Our Signs on the horizons and in their own beings until it becomes clear to them that it is the Truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is a witness over everything?

Hindi

हम अनक़रीब ही अपनी (क़ुदरत) की निशानियाँ अतराफ (आलम) में और ख़़ुद उनमें भी दिखा देगें यहाँ तक कि उन पर ज़ाहिर हो जाएगा कि वही यक़ीनन हक़ है क्या तुम्हारा परवरदिगार इसके लिए काफी नहीं कि वह हर चीज़ पर क़ाबू रखता है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

We shall now show them Our signs in all the directions and within their own selves until it becomes clear to them that it is certainly the truth; is not your Lord sufficient as a Witness over all things?

Hindi

शीघ्र ही हम उन्हें अपनी निशानियाँ वाह्य क्षेत्रों में दिखाएँगे और स्वयं उनके अपने भीतर भी, यहाँ तक कि उनपर स्पष्टा हो जाएगा कि वह (क़ुरआन) सत्य है। क्या तुम्हारा रब इस दृष्टि, से काफ़ी नहीं कि वह हर चीज़ का साक्षी है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

We shall now show them Our signs in all the directions and within their own selves until it becomes clear to them that it is certainly the truth; is not your Lord sufficient as a Witness over all things?

Hindi

हम अनक़रीब ही अपनी (क़ुदरत) की निशानियाँ अतराफ (आलम) में और ख़़ुद उनमें भी दिखा देगें यहाँ तक कि उन पर ज़ाहिर हो जाएगा कि वही यक़ीनन हक़ है क्या तुम्हारा परवरदिगार इसके लिए काफी नहीं कि वह हर चीज़ पर क़ाबू रखता है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

We shall show them Our portents on the horizons and within themselves until it will be manifest unto them that it is the Truth. Doth not thy Lord suffice, since He is Witness over all things?

Hindi

शीघ्र ही हम उन्हें अपनी निशानियाँ वाह्य क्षेत्रों में दिखाएँगे और स्वयं उनके अपने भीतर भी, यहाँ तक कि उनपर स्पष्टा हो जाएगा कि वह (क़ुरआन) सत्य है। क्या तुम्हारा रब इस दृष्टि, से काफ़ी नहीं कि वह हर चीज़ का साक्षी है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

English

We shall show them Our portents on the horizons and within themselves until it will be manifest unto them that it is the Truth. Doth not thy Lord suffice, since He is Witness over all things?

Hindi

हम अनक़रीब ही अपनी (क़ुदरत) की निशानियाँ अतराफ (आलम) में और ख़़ुद उनमें भी दिखा देगें यहाँ तक कि उन पर ज़ाहिर हो जाएगा कि वही यक़ीनन हक़ है क्या तुम्हारा परवरदिगार इसके लिए काफी नहीं कि वह हर चीज़ पर क़ाबू रखता है

Last Update: 2014-07-03
Usage Frequency: 1

Reference: Anonymous

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